Most of the studies were performed in vitro. Available data do not confirm any positive effects on sperm parameters and pregnancy rates in vivo in controlled clinical trials. Empiric treatment of male infertility is generally not recommended.


AntiestrogenClomiphene citrate


Prevent negative feedback of estrogens to the pituitary and hypothalamus


Aromatase inhibitorsTestolactoneBlock the conversion of testosterone to estrogen


Mast cell blockers TranilastBlocking release of chemical mediators from mast cells
a-blockers Terazosin? increase the rate of sperm transport from caput to cauda. Increase sperm concentration
Gonadotropins/GnRHHCG/HMG, GnRH,

Recombinant human FSH

Possible effect on spermatogenesis and sperm maturation


Pancreatic proteinaseKallikreinCleaves kininogen to produce kinins( regulation of sperm motility)


ACE inhibitorsCaptoprilIncrease sperm count
Prostaglandin inhibitorsIndomethacinBlock negative regulatory effect of prostaglandin on testicular and spermatozoal function


Phosphodiesterase inhibitorsPentoxyfillineIncrease sperm motility in vitro


CorticosteroidsPrednisoneAnti-inflammatory effect


ZincZincImprove sperm production


VitaminsC, EAntioxidants, decrease level of Reactive Oxygen Species
AminoacidsL-arginineImprove sperm motility



Selected Bibliography

  1. Wang C., Chan C-W., Wong K-K et al. Comparison of the effectiveness of placebo, clomiphene citrate,mesterolone, pentoxiphylline and testosterone rebound therapy for the treatment of idiopathic oligospermia. Fertil.Steril 1988;49:865
  2. Schill WB. Recent progress in pharmacological therapy of male infertility: a review. Abdrologia 1979;11:77
  3. Schill WB. Treatment of idiopathic oligospermia by kallikrein: result s of double-blind study.Arch Androl 1979;2:163
  4. Baker HWG. Medical treatment for idiopathic male infertility:Is it curative or palliative. Baillieres Clinical Obstetrics & Gynecology1997;11(4):673-689
  5. Schill WB. Survey of medical therapy in andrology. Int J Androl 1995;18 suppl 2: 56-62
  6. Scibona M. Meschini P. Capparelli S. Pecori C. Rossi P. Menchini Fabris GF. L-arginine and male infertility. Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica1994; 46(4):251-3


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