Published at the College of Dental Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina
Volume 4, Issue 1
Letter from the Editors
The Institute of Medicine and the Pew Health Professions Commission have released two important studies which directly impact on the role of oral biology in dental education this past year. The Institute of Medicine study Dental Education at the Crossroads recommends that dental schools "design an integrated basic and clinical science curriculum that provides clinically relevant education in the basic sciences and scientifically based education in clinical areas", and that institutions "move toward integrated basic science education for dental and medical schools". The Pew Commission report Critical Challenges: Revitalizing the Health Professions for the Twenty-First Century states that dental schools should "educate students with a pattern of practice and professional expectations that include expanded knowledge based on the biomedical sciences, less mechanical/surgical repair and more care dependent upon an in-depth knowledge of chemistry, biology, microbiology, internal medicine and pharmacology". The Pew Commission also states that "dental schools must remain closely allied with medicine in order to develop practitioners who are skilled in preventive and self-assessment techniques, dietary counseling, information management and risk assessment, clinical pharmacology, general medicine, physical diagnosis and diagnostic sciences". These recommendations are clearly in accord with the importance of oral biology within the dental curriculum and strongly impact on the directions which both the AAOB and the AADS Oral Biology Section need to take concerning the promotion of oral biology in dental education. Both AAOB President Dr. Murray R. Robinovitch and the Chairman of the AADS Oral Biology Section Dr. James L. McDonald discuss these issues in this Newsletter. The Pew Commission has kinkly allowed us to reprint the section related to dentistry which can be found on pages 13-14 this Newsletter.
During the past year, the AAOB has taken a significant step in the promotion of oral biology by setting up an AAOB Home Page on the World Wide Web. Dr. Elise S. Eisenberg has provided an excellent introduction to Dentistry and the World Wide Web which appears on page 14 of this Newsletter. Specific information concerning the AAOB Home Page on the World Wide Web can be found on pages 15-16.
The editors would like to thank all those who have contributed to this Newsletter. We would like to express our appreciation to AAOB President Dr. Murray R. Robinovitch and the Chairman of the AADS Oral Biology Section Dr. James L. McDonald for their contributions, and Dr. Elise S. Eisenberg and Dr. Andrew I. Spielman from New York University for their contribution on the World Wide Web and the oral biology program at New York University. The editors would also like to thank Dr. Frank Dowd of Creighton University for collecting and compiling the information for the Oral Biology Survey.
Finally, all members who attend the AADR/AADS meeting in San Francisco this March are urged to attend the oral biology related events described in this Newsletter.
The AAOB Newsletter
Steven D. London, D.D.S., Ph.D., Editor
John G. Blackburn, Ph.D., Co-Editor
The AAOB Newsletter is published for the members of the American Association of Oral Biologists and other's interested in the discipline of Oral Biology. Statements in this publication do not constitute an endorsement by the College of Dental Medicine or the Medical University of South Carolina. All correspondence should be directed to Dr. Steven London, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, 171 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 (E-Mail: LondonSD@MUSC.EDU).
The Winds of Change by Dr. Murray R. Robinovitch, President of the American Association of Oral Biologists
In the February, 1995 issue of the AAOB Newsletter, past president Dr. Dobrosielski-Vergona noted that we were anxiously awaiting the AADS/AADR symposium dealing with the Institute of Medicine Study on the Future of Dental Education (Dental Education at the Crossroads, M. J. Field, ed., National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1995). Of great importance to oral biologists are the I.O.M. recommendations that dental schools "design an integrated basic and clinical science curriculum that provides clinically relevant education in the basic sciences and scientifically based education in clinical areas",and that institutions "move toward integrated basic science education for dental and medical schools". Given the facts that the application of basic sciences to the field of dentistry appears in most, if not all, definitions of oral biology and that many oral biologists hold faculty appointments in both dental and medical schools, these I.O.M. recommendations should have an immediate and profound impact upon us. To what degree individual schools of dentistry adopt the I.O.M. recommendations remains to be seen. It should be recognized that all schools do face periodic examination for accreditation, at which times the I.O.M. report will weigh heavily on the faculties preparing for this process. In this regard, I draw your attention to this year's AADS Basic Science and Oral Biology Sections joint symposium entitled Foundation Knowledge for Competencies: The Merging of Basic and Clinical Sciences, to be held on Saturday, March 16th at 2:00 PM. This symposium, following on the heels of last year's, should serve well to keep us in the forefront of dialogue concerning these recommended curricular changes.
At a time when it appears that there is a clear nation-wide mandate for oral biology to come forward with several essential elements for school of dentistry curricular revisions, given the I.O.M. recommendations, the field is being threatened with a significant setback, the loss of the Oral Biology Section of the AADS. Resolution 13S-95-H, which was adopted by the AADS House of Delegates at the 1995 annual meeting, increases annual dues to $95.00 effective July 1, 1995. Effective July 1, 1995 members may belong to three sections but only the first will receive the section dues allocation of $20.00. Effective July 1, 1996, membership includes two sections with the first receiving the section dues. Effective July 1, 1997, membership includes one section. Membership in additional sections will cost $20.00 each. Clearly, a result of this resolution may be that many of our colleagues may drop their membership in the Oral Biology Section in order to retain membership in one of the basic science discipline sections. Should this indeed happen, it could be most unfortunate and antithetical to the process needed for implementation of the I.O.M. recommendations. We must remember that the Oral Biology Section established curricular guidelines for both predoctoral dental and oral biology graduate programs, and the existence of these AADS guidelines should prove extremely useful in our efforts to obtain adequate oral biology representation in dental curricula. You are urged to attend the AADS Oral Biology Section Meeting and the AADS Basic Science Sections Caucus on Saturday, March 16th in order to participate in this debate.
As if the I.O.M. report and the AADS proposed changes were not enough, the Pew Health Professions Commission has just released an executive summary of its third report (dated November, 1995) entitled Critical Challenges: Revitalizing the Health Professions for the Twenty-First Century. The summary contains some shocking predictions and recommendations for the medical profession. The commission predicts the closure of as many as half of the nation's hospitals and a surplus of 100,000 to 150,000 physicians, 200,000 to 300,000 nurses and 40,000 pharmacists. It recommends reducing the size of the entering medical school class in the U.S. by 20-25% by the year 2005, and that this reduction should come from closing medical schools, not reducing class size. In the area of dental education, the commission recommends maintaining current class size and the creation of a postgraduate year of training for all graduating general dentists, this year to be incorporated into the current four year post-baccalaureate curriculum. Needless to say, this report will prompt a great deal of discussion in the health sciences academic arena, and could have profound effects on oral biology faculty. (The Section of the Pew report related to dentistry is included in this Newsletter on pages 13-14.
I cannot remember any other time in my 30 years in dental academia that there were more external forces being brought to bare on schools of dentistry, their faculties and the future of oral biology. It follows that the American Association of Oral Biologists is needed more than ever as an instrument of representation for those in our field, as is the Oral Biology Section of the AADS.
A.A.O.B.'s State of Health
During the past year, the organization's Secretary/Treasurer, Dr. Steven D. London, has worked prodigiously at informing members of their membership status, collecting past and current dues and updating the membership roles. As a result of his efforts, I am pleased to report that the status of the organization has been greatly clarified. As of August, 1995, we had 78 currently paid up members and 73 that were still in arrears. I believe that Dr. London has been very successful in clearing up confusion that arose due to the temporary cessation in mandatory collection of subscription fees for the Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine while it underwent a change in publisher. Hopefully, everyone now understands their membership status and will become current if they have not done so already. I am confident that he will have even better news about membership in his report at the AAOB business meeting in San Francisco set for Saturday, March 16th at noon.
I would like to take this opportunity to thank all my fellow AAOB. officers who have worked so hard during this year. I am particularly indebted to Dr. Steven D. London, our Secretary/Treasurer who has kept me so well informed and worked so hard on the membership updating, coordinating various plans for the AAOB's participation at the 1996 IADR/AADS meeting in San Francisco and the publication of the AAOB Newsletter. Special thanks also go to Dr. Ken Etzel who served as the program officer and worked on setting up our joint Oral Biology/Basic Science Sections symposium. I also wish to acknowledge the efforts of Dr. Olav Alvares who, as editor, has made our official publication, Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, a first class journal, and who has tirelessly shepherded it through the trials and tribulations of a changeover in publisher. I appreciate the opportunity of having served the AAOB as president during this year and I thank you for your support.
AAOB Membership Status and Financial Condition as of December 31, 1995
1995 was an excellent year for the AAOB both financially and in terms of the number of active members. All members of record (151) were billed in April for Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, 1995 association dues, and any past association dues which were in arrears. Members in arrears were again billed in August and all members were asked to update their data file for the association's records. In addition, all members of the AADS Oral Biology section who were not AAOB members were invited to join our association via a mailing in June. Through these efforts we were able to end the year with 112 active members (110 full and 2 students). We are pleased to report that all members have met all financial obligations to the association (i.e.. all arrears have been paid and all members have subscribed to Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine for 1995). We are also pleased to report that 1995 saw the addition of 21 new members to the association. The current members are to be congratulated in their recruiting efforts and are encouraged to continue in these efforts during 1996. Membership application forms are included with this Newsletter and are also available in all issues of Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine. Additionally, a membership application form can be obtained from the AAOB Home Page on the World Wide Web at http://www2.musc.edu/AAOB.html.
The following table provides information on the composition of our membership since the inception of the association in 1989. From this data, it is interesting to note that 55% of the original membership group from 1989 are still active members of the association and that these founding members comprise 55% of the total active membership of the association as of December 31, 1995. The association has clearly been able to attract a number of new members during the past two years and it is hoped that this trend will continue.
Year Member Joined /Number of Members /Number Current
Honorary Life Member /1 /1
1989/ 113 /62
1990 /10 /5
1991/ 5 /3
1992/ 8 /7
1993/ 5 /3
1994/ 10 /10
1995/ 21 /21
Total/ 173 /112
The following financial statement covers the 1995 calendar year. We are pleased to report the balance of the association funds increased by $2,046.18 during the 1995 calendar year. Please note that the collection of past dues contributed 46% of the 1995 income. It is anticipated that past dues will not make a significant contribution to association income in future years.
Association Balance (1/1/95) $4,356.30
1995 Dues 1,284.00
1996 Dues 48.00
1995 CROBM 4,500.00
1996 CROBM 225.00
Past Dues 946.00
Interest Earned 48.17
Total Inflows $7,051.17
IADR (for CROBM 1995) $4,590.00
Newsletter Expenses 382.74
Bank Charges 32.25
Total Outflows ($5,004.99)
Balance for 1995 $2,046.18
Association Balance (12/31/95) $6,402.48
1996 AAOB Business Meeting
The 1996 AAOB Business Meeting will be held in conjunction with the AADR and AADS meetings in San Francisco, California during March 1996. This year, our business meeting will be on Saturday, March 16th from 12:00 to 1:00 P.M. in Golden Gate A3 Room at the San Francisco Marriott Hotel. A number of items of interest will be discussed at this meeting. The planned agenda for the meeting includes: approval of the minutes from the 1995 meeting in San Antonio; Treasurer's report; election results; report on the Oral Biology Section of the AADS; AAOB Junior Scientist winners; report on Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, proposed changes in the AAOB Bylaws; consideration of provisions for non-USA memberships; AABO application form revisions, and the status of AAOB's use of the electronic media. All members should plan to attend the AADS Oral Biology Section business meeting which directly follows our meeting in the same room at 1:00 to 2:00 PM.
1996 AAOB Reception
The AAOB will host a reception on Saturday, March 16th which will also be located in the Golden Gate A3 Room at the San Francisco Marriott Hotel and will immediately follow the AADS Basic Science Sections Caucus. The reception is scheduled from 6:30 to 7:30 PM. Light refreshments and a cash bar will be provided for members and their guests. We hope that all AAOB members will attend the AAOB Business Meeting and Reception and ask all current AAOB members to invite any interested members of the dental community to these events.
1996 AAOB Joint Program/Workshop
The AAOB is once again collaborating with the AADS to present a joint program in San Francisco. This year a workshop titled "Foundation Knowledge for Competencies: The Merging of Basic and Clinical Sciences" will bring together a panel of individuals from dental schools who have already included foundation knowledge in developing their competencies. They are Dr. William J. Babler (Baylor), Dr. Jose E. Torres (Puerto Rico), Dr. Les Felpel (San Antonio), and Dr. Larry Luke (UCLA). Dr. David Chambers (Univ. of Pacific) will give a brief introduction on foundation knowledge and the status of the AADS competencies. Following these presentations, participants will be given the opportunity to develop competencies in their area of expertise with the assistance of facilitators from both the basic and clinical sciences. It is anticipated that the competencies developed at this meeting will form the basis for further development by the AADS of foundation knowledge for competencies. The program will be held on Saturday, March 16, 1996 from 2:00 to 5:00 PM. Please make every effort to attend this workshop and contribute to this exciting workshop experience.
AAOB Junior Scientist Award
For the third year, AAOB Junior Scientist Awards were presented at the Annual Pennsylvania Junior Academy of Sciences Regional meeting. The 62nd meeting of the PJAS, Region 7 , was hosted by Chartiers Valley High School in Bridgeville, Pennsylvania on February 3, 1996. Over 1400 students competed in categories that included zoology, ecology, biochemistry, botany, physics, chemistry, human biology, earth /space, mathematics, microbiology, computers, and behavioral sciences. The AAOB was joined by several industries and professional organizations in presenting awards - Alcoa, Sigma Xi, American Chemical Society and Westinghouse Corporation to name a few. While an Oral Biology award has been given for the past 12 years at this meeting, this will be the third year in which the AAOB has sponsored this award. This program represents one way in which our organization is trying to encourage young people to become involved in oral biology and dentistry. The award includes a $50.00 cash prize and a certificate with the AAOB logo. This years winners were Megan Collett, Grade 9, Oakland Catholic High School (Alcohol- Free Mouthwashes and the Reduction of Susceptibility to Dental Caries) and John Rumin, Grade 7, St. James Elementary (What are the Effects of Various Liquids on Extracted Teeth?). The 61st Annual Pennsylvania Junior Academy of Sciences Regional meeting was hosted by Woodland Hills High School, Churchill, Pennsylvania. While originally scheduled for February 4, 1995, the meeting was rescheduled for February 25, 1995 due to inclement weather on the original date. We were unable to report last years winner's in last year's AAOB Newsletter. The 1995 winners were Kristen Pepe, Grade 9, Serra Catholic High School (DNA Testing in the Treatment of Periodontal Disease) and Danielle Danzuso, Grade 8, St. Margaret Elementary (The Effect of pH on Oral Bacteria).
Report on the 1995 AAOB Joint Symposium
Last year, In San Antonio, the AAOB joined with the AADS Section on Oral Biology to co-sponsor a program of mutual interest. This symposium, titled "Use of New Technology in Oral Biology" brought together three excellent speakers to discuss their interests in areas of Biomaterials, Microbiology, and Curricula Development in Predoctoral Dental Education. Dr. Jack Lemons, University of Alabama,discussed the transition of biomaterials over the years, highlighting technological developments which have provided the impetus for these rapid changes. Dr. Page Caufield, also from the University of Alabama School of Dentistry, shared his thoughts and data on microbial etiology of oral diseases. In particular, he discussed the importance of microbial monitoring of biological events which determine "windows of infectivity" of S. mutans and other microbial pathogens. Dr. Marilyn Lantz, Indiana University School of Dentistry, concluded the program by challenging each of us to look at our educational programs to determine, if indeed, we as educators and researchers are transferring clinically relevant information to our students in the best possible manner. Thanks to all who attended, and especially our distinguished speakers, who made this program possible.
Minutes of the 1995 Annual AAOB Business Meeting
The 1995 Annual AAOB business meeting was held on Saturday, March 11, 1995 at the San Antonio Convention Center. Dr. Kathleen Dobrosielski-Vergona, AAOB president, opened the meeting and extended her appreciation to the AAOB officers for their input during the preceding year. She then set the agenda and lead the membership in their discussion of the following items of business.
Item 1: The minutes of the AAOB business meeting on March 10, 1994 in Seattle, Washington were accepted as presented the February, 1995 issue (Volume 3, Issue 1) of the American Association of Oral Biologists Newsletter.
Item 2: Dr. Thomas F. McNamara reported that the current balance of Association funds is $4,356.30. There were approximately 80 members in good standing in 1994. Dr. McNamara reported that 1995 Dues Notices would be sent out after the annual meeting in San Antonio following the resolution of the collection of subscription fees for Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine (see item 11 below).
Item 3: Dr. Kathleen Dobrosielski-Vergona thanked Dr. Thomas F. McNamara for his service as AAOB Secretary/Treasurer from 1993-1995. Dr. McNamara has taken on additional administrative responsibilities at his institution and has resigned as AAOB Secretary/Treasurer as of March 1995. Dr. Steven D. London has been appointed by the AAOB Board of Directors to complete Dr. McNamara's term.
Item 4: Dr. Kathleen Dobrosielski-Vergona reported that an AAOB Junior Scientist award program which was initiated in 1994 in Pittsburgh, PA was continued in 1995. The purpose of the program is to promote oral biology and educate the public about the nature of oral biology. She announced the 1995 winners and encouraged other members to initiate similar programs in their communities where Junior Academies of Sciences (or similar programs) exist.
Item 5: The following members were elected or appointed officers for 1995-1996:
President: Murray R. Robinovitch – University of Washington
President-Elect: Frank Dowd – Creighton University
Secretary/Treasurer: Steven D. London (1995-1996) – Medical University of South Carolina
Elected Directors: Lorne Golub (1994-1996) – SUNY, Stony Brook
Mark Wolff (1995-1997) – SUNY, Stony Brook
Appointed Directors: Firoz Rahemtulla (1995-1996) – University of Alabama
Andrew Spielman (1995-1996) – New York University
Program Officer: Kenneth R. Etzel (1994-1996) – University of Pittsburgh
Past-President: Kathleen Dobrosielski-Vergona – University of Pittsburgh
Editor, CROBM Olav Alvares – Univ. of Texas, San Antonio
Item 6: The Bylaws Committee and the membership unanimously accepted a motion that the Editor of our official journal, Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and MedicineI, serve as an official officer of the American Association of Oral Biologists.
Item 7: The issue of Founding Member Status was addressed by the membership. Article XII of the AAOB Bylaws "FOUNDERS OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ORAL BIOLOGISTS" and Article XI, Section 1 of the AAOB Bylaws "RATIFICATION OF BYLAWS AND INAUGURAL MEETING" states: "By virtue of their signatures of approval, and actual support as outlined in Article XI, Section 1, the signatories of the predecessor of this document shall be known as Founders of the American Association of Oral Biologists, and their names shall remain affixed to these Bylaws permanently. This list of Founders, shall be included in Article XII arranged in alphabetical order of the last names. .........". Article XI, Section 1: ......... Following a formative period of circa five years, individuals who signed the original Bylaws document shall be known as the "Founders of the Association of Oral Biologists" provided such individuals support the Association as evidence by paying the official dues assessed to all members. Original signers who may be in arrears shall have until December 30, 1993 to certify their status as Founders and members in good standing. As of January 1, 1994, any individuals listed as Founders who are not due paying members shall be deleted from the list of Founders".
While the Bylaws state that the deadline for payment of dues for Founding members is December 30, 1993 the membership agreed that all members shall have until December 31, 1995 to pay past dues and retain their Founding member status. Thus, any member who has not paid $12.00 for each of the five years including 1989 - 1993 by December 31, 1995 will not be included on the official list of founders.
Item 8: Dr. Kathleen Dobreosielski-Vergona reported that the International and American Associations for Dental Research (IADR/AADR) purchased Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, an official publication of the American Association of Oral Biologists on December 7, 1994 from Begell House, Inc. The IADR/AADR and the Central Office Publication Department will publish and manage the Journal with Dr. Olav Alvares continuing as the Editor. The IADR/AADR agreed that the Journal, in its present format, can continue to be the official journal of the American Association of Oral Biologists. The Subscription rate for members of the AAOB and all IADR members in 1995 will be $45.00 for four issues.
Item 9: Dr. Kathleen Dobreosielski-Vergona thanked Dr. Olav Alvares and Dr. John J. Clarkson (Executive Director, IADR/AADR) for their support and efforts in the transfer of Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine to the IADR/AADR and in their working together in the AAOB interests to keep the Journal an official publication of the American Association of Oral Biologists. Dr. Kathleen Dobreosielski-Vergona also thanked the IADR/AADR for providing reduced subscription rates to AAOB members.
Item 10: At the AAOB Business Meeting on March 11, 1993 in Chicago, the membership passed a resolution that all full members would be required to subscribe to Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine on an annual basis. This resolution was not enforced in 1994 due to the confusion created by the transfer of the Journal from CRC Press to Begell House. However, with the resolution of this situation by the sale of the Journal to IADR/AADR this past December, the membership reaffirmed that subscription to the Journal will now be mandatory for all full members beginning in 1995. Dues for full members will be $57.00. This includes $12.00 AAOB dues and the $45.00 subscription fee for Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine. It was agreed by the membership that subscription to Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine would be optional for associate (student) and retired members.
Item 11: The membership considered several options for the integration of the collection of membership dues and the subscription fee for Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine. One option was to use the centralized billing services of the IADR/AADR. The cost of this service would be $2.00/member or ~ 17% of our annual $12.00 dues. After discussion of this and other options, the membership decided that the Secretary/Treasurer should directly bill members for association dues and will collect and forward the subscription fees for Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine to the IADR/AADR.
With no further business items to be discussed, the meeting was adjourned at 6:00 P.M.
AAOB Founding Members
The following list comprises the Founding members of the American Association of Oral Biologists and shall be amended to Article XII of the AAOB Bylaws (FOUNDERS OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ORAL BIOLOGISTS). Any errors or omissions in this list should be reported to the Secretary/Treasurer, Dr. Steven D. London, by phone at 803 792-2152, FAX 803-792-2464, E-Mail (LondonSD@MUSC.EDU) or by mail at the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, 171 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, South Carolina 29425.
A. Birk Adams, Michael C. Alfano, Olav Alvares, Raymond Bieber
Henning Birkedal Hansen, Mark A. Bishop ,Louis Blanchet
Arnold S. Bleiweis, Robert J. Boackle ,Barbara D. Boyan
David G. Brown, Donald Brunette, Jarvis T. Chan, Alfred E. Ciarlone
Don B. Clewell, Charles M. Cobb, Mustafa Kh. Dabbous, Beverly A. Dale-Crunk
Paul J. Desjardins, M.W.J. Dodds, Frank Dowd, John C. Drach
J. David Eick, Kenneth R. Etzel, Dennis E. Feely, Susan Fisher
Marion E. Frank, Franklin Garcia-Godoy, Jonathan Garlick, Greg R. Germaine
Lorne Golub. Dana Graves, John S. Greenspan, Mark C. Herzberg
Thomas B. Higerd, Stanley Holt, Jeanne M. Iverson, Kenneth T. Izutsu
John J. Jandinski, Dorthea A. Johnson-Alvares, Joseph A. Kanapka, Hershall W. Kaufman
Israel Kleinberg, Dennis E. Lopatin, Ingvar Magnusson, Irwin D. Mandel
T.F. McNamara, Bernard J. Moncla, Paul A. Moore, Gregory Mooser
John P. Naftel, Frank G. Oppenheim, Jerry Pollock, N. S. Ramamurthy
Michael J. Reed, Barry Rifkin, Francisco Rivera-Hidalgo, Murray R. Robinovitch
Joel D. Rudney, John D. Rugh, David H. Shaw, Zia Shey
Quenton T. Smith, Richard P. Suddick, Edward A. Sweeney, Lorne Taichman
Alan N. Taylor, Joseph Travers, Peter F. Van der Ven, Arthur Veis
Kathleen Dobrosielski-Vergona, Eileen L. Watson, Mark Wolff, Chou Bing Wu
James A. Yaeger, A. Moneim Zaki, Domenick T. Zero
News From the Oral Biology Section of the American Association of Dental Schools (AADS)
I would like to thank the Editors of the AAOB Newsletter for the opportunity to express a few thoughts on behalf of the Oral Biology Section of the AADS in this Newsletter. I, too, will be distributing a Newsletter to our membership within the next two weeks. Many of us in the Oral Biology Section are eagerly looking forward to the upcoming March meeting in San Francisco where AAOB members and 5 basic science Sections of the AADS will attend our joint program entitled "Foundation Knowledge for Competencies: The Merging of Basic and Clinical Sciences" from 2 - 5 PM on Saturday, March 16th. We have scheduled the business meetings immediately prior to the scientific program in such a manner that interested individuals may attend both the AAOB meeting from 12 - 1 PM and the Oral Biology Section meeting from 1 - 2 PM. Following the scientific program, we will have business meetings for other Sections from 5 - 6 PM and then a basic science caucus from 6 - 6:30 PM. After that, the AAOB is hosting a reception for all interested individuals from 6:30 to 7:30 PM. This would seem to be a wonderful and unique opportunity for members of the different groups to get acquainted with individuals having similar interests in an informal atmosphere. I will be encouraging all members of the Oral Biology Section of the AADS to attend this reception, and would like to thank the AAOB group for hosting the event. In fact, I think membership in the AAOB including subscription to Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine is an extraordinary bargain for the $57 annual charge. All Oral Biology Section members should take advantage of this opportunity.
This might also be a good time to similarly encourage all AAOB members to become members of the Oral Biology Section of the AADS. Under the current dues set-up, an individual membership in AADS costs $95, with the opportunity to join as many as three sections without paying additional dues. Unfortunately, this dues schedule will be changing in the upcoming year(s), ultimately leading to members having to pay additionally for membership in each section beyond the first one. Since the membership of the Oral Biology Section is largely composed of individuals whose primary teaching responsibilities lie outside of "oral biology", this dues change would seem to put an undue financial demand on Oral Biology Section members, and could well lead to a dwindling in the number of members. With oral biology principles and technology advances currently permeating many aspects of dental education and in view of the Institute of Medicine report of last year, this would seem to be a particularly inappropriate time to discourage membership in the Oral Biology Section of the AADS. I hope that everyone who reads this and has a similar view will express their feelings at the appropriate time at the San Francisco meeting. Hope to see you all there!
James L. McDonald, Ph.D.
Chairman, Oral Biology Section
News From AAOB Members
Opportunities in the University of Florida Department of Oral Biology Graduate Program
The Department of Oral Biology currently has slots on a National Institute of Dental Research funded training grant for holders of bachelor's or D.D.S./D.M.D. degrees who wish to pursue the Ph.D. degree. The department offers a course of study leading to the Ph.D. degree with research opportunities in the areas of cell and molecular biology of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, pathogenic mechanisms, immunology, mucosal immunity and vaccines. Competitive stipends are available. Tuition and fee waivers and health insurance are currently provided. Higher stipends are available for those students with experience beyond the D.D.S./D.M.D. degree. The Ph.D. program is designed to provide a solid foundation for pursuing academic and/or research careers. If you are interested in discussing career possibilities or need further information about the program, please call (904-846-0780, FAX 904-392-3070), E-Mail (firstname.lastname@example.org) or write to Dr. Thomas A. Brown at the following address: Department of Oral Biology, P.O. Box 100424, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610. You may also view additional information about our program and the University of Florida on my WWW homepage at http://nervm.nerdc.ufl.edu/~tbrown.
Opportunities in the Northwestern University Division of Oral Biology Graduate Program
The Division of Oral Biology within the Northwestern University Dental School is now in it's second year of a NIDR funded program designed to train Dental Scientists. We accept any individuals holding the D.D.S/D.M.D. degree. The research training can be combined with a dental specialty if the clinical work is pertinent to the research effort. Potential candidates should contact Dr. Michael T. DiMuzio by phone (312-503-4148), FAX (312-503-2544), E-mail (email@example.com), or by mail at the following address.
Michael T. DiMuzio, Ph.D.
Division of Oral Biology
Northwestern University Dental School
303 East Chicago Avenue
Chicago, IL 60611
Please note that the training fellowships are restricted to U.S. citizens or permanent residents. We will conduct interviews at the AADR Meeting in San Francisco in March of 1996, so please call and reserve an appointment slot as soon as possible. We hope to see you there!
Report on the AAOB Oral Biology Survey:
In 1993 the AAOB conducted an Oral Biology Survey which marked the tenth year since the last comparable survey was conducted. The previous Oral Biology Survey was reported in 1983 by R. Suddick and was published in the J. of Dental Education, 48, 291, 1984. Dr. Suddick's article was also reprinted in AAOB Newsletter Vol. 1, Issue 1 (1993).
The 1993 Oral Biology Survey was discussed by Dr. Frank Dowd in the February 1995 issue of the AAOB Newsletter (Vol. 3, Issue 1) and is available on the AAOB WWW Home Page or from the Editors of the AAOB Newsletter. In this issue, the complete results of this survey are presented.
The Third Report of the Pew Health Professions Commission
The following section related to Dentistry is printed with the permission of the Pew Health Professions Commission and is a component of the Third Report of the Pew Health Professions Commission entitled "Critical Challenges: Revitalizing the Health Professions for the Twenty-First Century" (December 1995). All bolded type is reproduced from the original Pew Health Professions document.
During the past two years dental care and the practice of dentistry have been left out of the debate for health care reform and the movement to create integrated systems of care. There are several reasons for this. The organized dental profession argues that dentistry has maintained an outstanding record in cost containment, prevention, specialist/generalist ratios and active involvement in the community. By and large, the organized dental profession has wanted to be outside of the discussions, preferring to have dental care remain outside of the reforms that have buffeted the rest of health care. This has been possible because most of the integrated systems have yet to focus on dental care (it represents about 7% of health care expenditures). Much of dentistry is delivered outside of the traditional health insurance payment mechanism, and as Table 9 [NOT REPRODUCED IN THIS NEWSLETTER] indicates, dentistry alone among the health professions will actually experience a decline in the ratio of professionals to population over the next two decades if current trends continue.
While medicine has moved dramatically into managed care arrangements, often involving the creation of integrated networks, group practice arrangements and the formal employment of physicians, the vast majority of dental care is still delivered by single dentists practicing in ambulatory settings.
From one perspective dentistry may appear to be in an enviable position relative to the other professions. Left alone and with a declining number of professionals, it may be able to control the manner in which care is delivered far more effectively than will medicine or nursing. This will perhaps be true for the portion of the population that the profession is serving as the new century begins. But the more challenging problem facing the profession is how it will serve the oral health care needs of the nation as its numbers decline and its practice modalities remain constant. Given the oversupply of practitioners in several other professions, it seems shortsighted to recommend expanding the size of the entering dental class. Rather, the opportunity seems to lie with changing the manner in which dental care is organized and delivered. In this way dentistry might anticipate the inevitable pressure that it be delivered in a more effective and efficient way by using dental hygienists and assistants more expansively, by linking more directly with the rest of the health care system, and by creating more efficient practices. It seems unlikely that practitioners will make these changes without the pressure of being oversupplied or a strong push form managed care organizations. Without such a change, however, the profession may find itself losing control of the responsibility for oral health to other professions that are willing to make such accommodations.
A projected decline in the number of dentists provides an opportunity for dental schools to develop and model different ways to organize and deliver care. Such a commitment will necessitate the ability to educate students with a pattern of practice and professional expectations that include expanded knowledge based on the biomedical sciences, less mechanical/surgical repair and more care dependent upon an in-depth knowledge of chemistry, biology, microbiology, internal medicine and pharmacology. Dental schools must remain closely allied with medicine in order to develop practitioners who are skilled in preventive and self-assessment techniques, dietary counseling, information management and risk assessment, clinical pharmacology, general medicine, physical diagnosis and diagnostic sciences. Technological and scientific advances, combined with changes in demographics, disease patterns and societal attitudes towards dental care are shaping a different future for the profession of dentistry that will continue well into the next century. New restorative materials, plus other technological advances, will permit the dentist to produce more services per unit of practice time, accomplish more sophisticated diagnostic and treatment planning alternatives, and provide a higher quality of care to an increasingly knowledgeable public.
Recommendations for Dentistry:
Class Size: Maintain the entering dental school class size at its 1993 level (4001 students).
Post-Graduate Training: Create the opportunity for a postgraduate year of training for all graduating general dentists. New opportunities should be developed in private practice and managed care settings.
Post-Baccalaureate Training. Accomplish the training for a dental degree and the one year of postgraduate training in four years of post-baccalaureate training.
Partnerships: Create adequately funded managed dental care partnerships between dental schools and their clinics and the emerging integrated health care system.
Management: Change the clinical training of dentists to reflect a broader orientation to the efficient management of quality dental care.
Cross Disciplines: Integrate dental education more thoroughly with that of the other health professions.
Productivity: Increase the productivity of dentists through the efficient and effective use of dental hygienists and dental assistants.
Education: Decrease the tuition dependency of dental schools, and subsequent student indebtedness, by developing efficiently managed dental school clinical models and the creation of endowments, scholarships and loan programs for students.
Dentistry and the World Wide Web
The large growth of the Internet and the World Wide Web in the last year has been of enormous benefit to dentistry. The Internet is composed of computers all over the world which communicate through either direct cable connections, or phone line connections, similar to the global phone system.
The World Wide Web is a part of the Internet. The World Wide Web uses a communications protocol known as "HyperText Transfer Protocol" (HTTP) to transmit text, graphics and other media forms. Text and graphics may have hypertext links (addresses) to different sites that can be reached by simply pointing a mouse at that link and pressing the mouse button.
Dentists and dentistry have a presence on the World Wide Web in the form of hundred's of locations or sites known on the World Wide Web as "home pages". Information is available on every conceivable facet of dentistry including information for the dental professional, for those seeking care, or a career in dentistry. Topics include sources of office supplies, practice management products (including computer programs), implants (both techniques and supplies), journals, art, dental associations, schools, dental practice listings ... and more.
The Internet has provided a forum for a wonderful exchange of questions, answers and opinions that reside within a format known as "newsgroups". These can be joined or "subscribed to" by anyone with an Internet E-mail account. Once you join, you receive all the E-mail submitted by other members of the group. If you wish, you can respond to any of these. Your response will be read by all members of the group who then may respond to your statement. There are currently 20 dental related newsgroups on a variety of topics. Many questions on some of the most active newsgroups deal with practice and treatment issues.
For those who are research oriented there exists a large body of information from government and educational sources. There are newsgroups for many of the research topics you can think of.
Keeping track of the daily increase of information can be very daunting. "Dental Related Internet Resources" located at New York University College of Dentistry contains the most comprehensive listing of dental resources available on the Internet (currently over 600 listings). There is a section called "What's New" where new material placed on the World Wide Web is added to the listing everyday. All of the dental related information described above can be found at this site and much, much more. The URL for NYU College of Dentistry is http://www.nyu.edu/Dental (Just as individuals have addresses for E-mail, home pages have addresses. These are specified by something called a "Uniform Resource Locator" or URL). New York University's "Dental Related Internet Resources" can also be accessed via the AAOB Home Page (see the following article).
Surfing the World Wide Web is a wonderful experience. Your colleagues are already there; grab your modem and surfboard and jump into the electronic waters of Cyberspace.
Elise S. Eisenberg, DDS Voice (212) 998-9790; Fax: (212) 995-4551
Coordinator of PC Training & Software Support E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
New York University College of Dentistry
Information Systems Department, 186W Webmaster NYUCD WWW Home Page
345 East 24th Street http://www.nyu.edu/Dental
New York, NY 10010
The American Association of Oral Biologists World Wide Web Home Page
In 1995 the AAOB entered "the electronic waters of Cyberspace" and established The American Association of Oral Biologists Home Page on the World Wide Web. The association would like to thank the Medical University of South Carolina for supporting this project by giving the AAOB a home at the Medical University of South Carolina's Website. The association would particularly like to acknowledge Dr. Curtis Wise and Dr. Michael Schmidt of the Medical University for their help in establishing the AAOB Home Page and their continued support of the association's Website. The AAOB Home Page can be accessed at the following URL address via your favorite web browser (i.e. Netscape, Mosaic, or your particular favorite):
Once you have found the AAOB Home Page, you can view information about our association, our publications, as well as "links" to other dental sites on the World Wide Web. The following list indicates the contents of the AAOB home page as of February 15, 1996.
· AAOB Bylaws
· Curricular Guidelines for Oral Biology
· Curricular Guidelines for Graduate Programs in Oral Biology
· AAOB Newsletters
· Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine
Citations include the table of contents of all issues with authors address and abstracts
· AAOB Membership Application
· Links to Other Dental Sites on the World Wide Web:
American Dental Association
American Association of Dental Schools
International/American Associations of Dental Research
Dental Related Internet Resources (New York University)
Internet Dentistry Resources (University of Iowa)
The Dentistry Homepage (University of Pittsburgh)
MedWeb: Dentistry (Emory University)
The DERWeb Home Page (Images for Dental Educators, University of Sheffield)
State University of New York at Stony Brook Department of Oral Biology & Pathology
Northwestern University Division of Oral Biology
University of Florida Department of Oral Biology
As Dr. Eisenberg described in the preceding article, exploring or "surfing" the World Wide Web is a wonderful experience. The link to "Dental Related Internet Resources" at New York University is a excellent site for AAOB members to begin their explorations of dental resources on the World Wide Web. The University of Iowa, the University of Pittsburgh, and Emory University also maintain Websites which contain much useful information and which can lead AAOB member's to other interesting sites on the World Wide Web. Of particular interest is a link to "Leslie's Listserv List" which can be accessed from the "Internet Dentistry Resources" at the University of Iowa link on the AAOB Home Page. "Leslie's Listserv List" contains a comprehensive, annotated list of dental discussion groups (currently 21) and bulletin boards (currently 4) that Dr. Eisenberg described in the previous article. This site is particularly useful because it not only contains descriptions of the groups but contains specific instruction on how to join each group and the E-mail address for the group's "owner".
The AAOB Home Page like other Home Pages on the World Wide Web is a work in progress and thus is subject to revision. We will be happy to change the AAOB Home Page as we receive input from AAOB members. We plan to set up a listing of AAOB members on the AAOB Home Page in the near future. In addition, in the near future we hope to have the ability to search both the membership directory and the contents of Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine.
1996 AADS Anatomic Sciences Program on the Internet
"Internet Surfing for the Basic Scientist and Dental Clinician" is the title of a program sponsored by the Anatomic Sciences Section of the AADS, to be presented on Sunday, March 17, 1996 in San Francisco, CA. Drs. Kathleen Dobrosielski-Vergona from the University of Pittsburgh and Larry Zoller, who represents Boston University, will be conducting this session. The intent is to survey the various web sites that offer teaching materials that could enhance lectures and seminars in anatomy. The format will be informal to allow others present to share their favorites and provide critiques of what is now available and applicable in dental education. Feel free to drop by, even if you are not members of the Anatomic Sciences Section. The program will run from 3:30 - 5:00 PM in the Yerba Buena Salon 5/6, San Francisco Marriott on Sunday, March 17, 1996. (Bathing suits are optional).
The Graduate Program in Oral Biology at New York University College of Dentistry
The Masters Program in Oral Biology was officially opened in the Fall of 1993 and is affiliated with the Department of Biology at New York University. The Program director is Professor Barry Rifkin while the graduate program coordinators are Associate Professors Andrew I. Spielman and Ronald G. Craig.
This program is open to full-time students, alone or combined with advanced clinical training. The purpose of the program is to provide a comprehensive foundation in areas of modern oral biological sciences appropriate for careers in teaching and research. The program offers opportunities to specialize in areas such as bone cell metabolism, connective tissue biochemistry, oral immunology, periodontal and caries microbiology, chemical carcinogenesis, mechanisms of mineralization, periodontal wound healing, saliva and salivation, taste mechanisms, and tumor immunology. The courses are taught at the College of Dentistry in the above areas of research and are supplemented with pertinent basic courses offered in the Graduate School of Arts and Science.
The creation of this program goes back several years when the school made some key administrative and scientific decisions. First, the College of Dentistry has established a Basic Science Division by amalgamation of all former basic science departments for better utilization of research space and personnel. Barry R. Rifkin was appointed as head of this division. Second, the College recruited young faculty with D.D.S. /Ph.D. degrees, to replace those who retired, thus generating a critical mass of dental scientists. The Basic Science Division has hired young faculty at the threshold of their scientific career, with potential to become independent investigators and with good teaching skills. These faculty members strengthened the academic reputation of NYUCD and established a new graduate program in Oral Biology. During the period of 1989 -1993, four young double degree faculty members were recruited at the assistant professor level. During the next two years, two more, with similar qualifications, were added to the existing faculty. Four out of the six new faculty also had a clinical specialty and three were appointed between two divisions, basic and clinical. During the first three years of their appointment, all of the newly recruited faculty members had minimal teaching, clinical and administrative duties, to allow time to set up their labs and submit grant proposals. All six new faculty members have secured NIH, NSF and/or other funding within the first 3-4 years. The ability to obtain NIH funding in times of increasing budget restrictions is particularly significant. Currently the six faculty have among them one R01, three R29, one R03, one NSF career award, and support from four private foundations. In addition, two of the faculty are P.I. on projects that are part of a center grant. The amount of secured funding for these newly recruited members was $1,000,000 for the fiscal year 1995/96.
Convinced by the success of these young scientists and to continue to improve its academic reputation, the College embarked on a nationwide search to appoint an additional 10 double degree D.D.S./ Ph.D. faculty members. The search is currently in progress but as of to date two new faculty members have accepted positions at NYUCD with five offers pending. Most of these appointments will be made in both basic and clinical divisions.
The program is open to candidates with a baccalaureate or equivalent, or with a professional degree in the health sciences. Candidates are chosen based on their academic records, recommendations, and an assessment of the candidates' scientific potential. All candidates must meet the requirements of the Department of Biology of the Graduate School of Arts and Science. Candidates should have a strong background in Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics. Applicants whose native language is not English must submit TOEFL scores. Scores of less than 550 are not acceptable. A supervisor, who is a member of the graduate faculty, is assigned to each student to closely monitor the student's progress.
Students are awarded the M.S. degree upon:
Upon acceptance the student is assigned a temporary mentor with the final mentor being chosen by the end of the first semester. During the first semester students take basic courses offered at the Biology Department such as Biochemistry, Cell Biology, and Molecular Biology. Courses offered by the Oral Biology faculty start during the Spring semester of the first year. The list of courses and their content is shown in Table 1. Most course work can be complete within 18 months. A student may complete his/her program in 2 years.
To date one student has graduated and three students are enrolled in the program. The first graduate of our program is currently completing her doctoral degree at University of Texas, Houston.
The current masters program in Oral Biology lists 16 faculty members (Table 2). Of these, seven hold doctoral degrees and nine have double degree (D.D.S. or D.M.D. and Ph.D.).
The Masters program in Oral Biology is run as a "mini doctoral program". With the increase in the number of faculty members and the prospect of additional recruits we hope to establish a full fledged Ph.D. program in Oral Biology.
Reminder .... Please plan to attend the following Oral Biology related events at the AADR/AADS joint meetings in San Francisco:
AAOB Business Meeting Saturday, March 16, 1996 12:00 - 1:00 P.M. in Golden Gate Salon A3, San Francisco Marriott Hotel.
AADS Oral Biology Section Business Meeting Saturday, March 16, 1996 1:00 - 2:00 P.M. in Golden Gate Salon A3, San Francisco Marriott Hotel.
AAOB Joint Symposium "Foundation Knowledge for Competencies: The Merging of Basic and Clinical Sciences" Saturday, March 16, 1996 2:00 - 5:00 P.M. in Yerba Buena Salon 8, San Francisco Marriott Hotel.
AADS Basic Science Sections Meetings Saturday, March 16, 1996 5:00 - 6:00 P.M. (Biochemistry and Nutrition, Microbiology, Physiology)
AADS Basic Science Sections Caucus Saturday, March 16, 1996 6:00 - 6:30 P.M. in Nob Hill A/B, San Francisco Marriott Hotel.
AAOB Reception Saturday, March 16, 1996 6:30 - 7:30 P.M. in Golden Gate Salon A3, San Francisco Marriott Hotel.
AADS Anatomic Sciences Section Symposium "Internet Surfing for the Basic Scientist and Dental Clinician" Sunday, March 17, 1996 3:30 - 5:00 P.M. in Yerba Buena Salon 5/6, San Francisco Marriott Hotel.